44. Surah Ad-Dukhan | The Drought
Surah Ad-Dukhan in Arabic
Surah Ad-Dukhan English Translation | Translators: Ahmed Ali
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
- By the Book that makes things clear;-
- We sent it down during a Blessed Night: for We (ever) wish to warn (against Evil).
- In the (Night) is made distinct every affair of wisdom,
- By command, from Our Presence. For We (ever) send (revelations),
- As Mercy from thy Lord: for He hears and knows (all things);
- The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all between them, if ye (but) have an assured faith.
- There is no god but He: It is He Who gives life and gives death,- The Lord and Cherisher to you and your earliest ancestors.
- Yet they play about in doubt.
- Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke (or mist) plainly visible,
- Enveloping the people: this will be a Penalty Grievous.
- (They will say:) “Our Lord! remove the Penalty from us, for we do really believe!”
- How shall the message be (effectual) for them, seeing that an Messenger explaining things clearly has (already) come to them,-
- Yet they turn away from him and say: “Tutored (by others), a man possessed!”
- We shall indeed remove the Penalty for a while, (but) truly ye will revert (to your ways).
- One day We shall seize you with a mighty onslaught: We will indeed (then) exact Retribution!
- We did, before them, try the people of Pharaoh: there came to them a messenger most honourable,
- Saying: “Restore to me the Servants of Allah: I am to you an messenger worthy of all trust;
- “And be not arrogant as against Allah: for I come to you with authority manifest.
- “For me, I have sought safety with my Lord and your Lord, against your injuring me.
- “If ye believe me not, at least keep yourselves away from me.”
- (But they were aggressive:) then he cried to his Lord: “These are indeed a people given to sin.”
- (The reply came:) “March forth with My Servants by night: for ye are sure to be pursued.
- “And leave the sea as a furrow (divided): for they are a host (destined) to be drowned.”
- How many were the gardens and springs they left behind,
- And corn-fields and noble buildings,
- And wealth (and conveniences of life), wherein they had taken such delight!
- Thus (was their end)! And We made other people inherit (those things)!
- And neither heaven nor earth shed a tear over them: nor were they given a respite (again).
- We did deliver aforetime the Children of Israel from humiliating Punishment,
- Inflicted by Pharaoh, for he was arrogant (even) among inordinate transgressors.
- And We chose them aforetime above the nations, knowingly,
- And granted them Signs in which there was a manifest trial
- As to these (Quraish), they say forsooth:
- “There is nothing beyond our first death, and we shall not be raised again.
- “Then bring (back) our forefathers, if what ye say is true!”
- What! Are they better than the people of Tubba and those who were before them? We destroyed them because they were guilty of sin.
- We created not the heavens, the earth, and all between them, merely in (idle) sport:
- We created them not except for just ends: but most of them do not understand.
- Verily the Day of sorting out is the time appointed for all of them,-
- The Day when no protector can avail his client in aught, and no help can they receive,
- Except such as receive Allah�s Mercy: for He is Exalted in Might, Most Merciful.
- Verily the tree of Zaqqum
- Will be the food of the Sinful,-
- Like molten brass; it will boil in their insides.
- Like the boiling of scalding water.
- (A voice will cry: “Seize ye him and drag him into the midst of the Blazing Fire!
- “Then pour over his head the Penalty of Boiling Water,
- “Taste thou (this)! Truly wast thou mighty, full of honour!
- “Truly this is what ye used to doubt!”
- As to the Righteous (they will be) in a position of Security,
- Among Gardens and Springs;
- Dressed in fine silk and in rich brocade, they will face each other;
- So; and We shall join them to fair women with beautiful, big, and lustrous eyes.
- There can they call for every kind of fruit in peace and security;
- Nor will they there taste Death, except the first death; and He will preserve them from the Penalty of the Blazing Fire,-
- As a Bounty from thy Lord! that will be the supreme achievement!
- Verily, We have made this (Qur�an) easy, in thy tongue, in order that they may give heed.
- So wait thou and watch; for they (too) are waiting.
Transliteration of Surah Ad-Dukhan
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Haa Meeem
- Wal Kitaabil Mubeen
- Innaaa anzalnaahu fee lailatim mubaarakah; innaa kunnaa munzireen
- Feehaa yufraqu kullu amrin hakeem
- Amram min ‘indinaaa; innaa kunnaa mursileen
- Rahmatam mir rabbik; innahoo Huwas Samee’ul ‘Aleem
- Rabbis samaawaati wal ardi wa maa bainahumaa; in kuntum mooqineen
- Laaa ilaaha illaa Huwa yuhyee wa yumeetu Rabbukum wa Rabbu aabaaa’ikumul awwaleen
- Bal hum fee shakkiny yal’aboon
- Fartaqib Yawma ta’tis samaaa’u bi dukhaanin mubeen
- Yaghshan naasa haazaa ‘azaabun aleem
- Rabbanak shif ‘annal ‘azaaba innaa mu’minoon
- Annaa lahumuz zikraa wa qad jaaa’ahum Rasoolum mubeen
- Summaa tawallaw ‘anhu wa qaaloo mu’allamum majnoon
- Innaa kaashiful ‘azaabi qaleelaa; innakum ‘aaa’idoon
- Yawma nabtishul batsha tal kubraa innaa muntaqimoon
- Wa laqad fatannaa qablahum qawma Fir’awna wa jaaa’ahum Rasoolun kareem
- An addooo ilaiya ‘ibaadal laahi innee lakum Rasoolun ameen
- Wa al laa ta’loo ‘alal laahi innee aateekum bisultaanim mubeen
- Wa innee ‘uztu bi Rabbee wa rabbikum an tarjumoon
- Wa il lam tu’minoo lee fa’taziloon
- Fada’aa rabbahooo anna haaa’ulaaa’i qawmum mujrimoon
- Fa asri bi’ibaadee lailan innakum muttaba’oon
- Watrukil bahra rahwan innahum jundum mughraqoon
- Kam tarakoo min jannaatinw wa ‘uyoon
- Wa zuroo’inw wa maqaa min kareem
- Wa na’matin kaanoo feehaa faakiheen
- Kazaalika wa awrasnaahaa qawman aakhareen
- Famaa bakat ‘alaihimus samaaa’u wal ardu wa maa kaanoo munzareen
- Wa laqad najjainaa Baneee Israaa’eela minal’azaabil muheen
- Min Fir’awn; innahoo kaana ‘aaliyam minal musrifeen
- Wa laqadikh tarnaahum ‘alaa ‘ilmin ‘alal ‘aalameen
- Wa aatainaahum minal aayaati maa feehi balaaa’um mubeen
- Inna haaa’ulaaa’i la yaqooloon
- In hiya illaa mawtatunal oolaa wa maa nahnu bimun shareen
- Fa’too bi aabaaa’inaaa inkuntum saadiqeen
- Ahum khayrun am qawmu Tubba’inw wallazeena min qablihim; ahlaknaahum innahum kaanoo mujrimeen
- Wa maa khalaqnas samaawaati wal arda wa maa baina humaa laa’ibeen
- Maa khalaqnaahumaaa illaa bilhaqqi wa laakinna aksarahum laa ya’lamoon
- Inna yawmal fasli meeqaatuhum ajma’een
- Yawma laa yughnee mawlan ‘am mawlan shai’anw wa laa hum yunsaroon
- Illaa mar rahimal laah’ innahoo huwal ‘azeezur raheem
- Inna shajarataz zaqqoom
- Ta’aamul aseem
- Kalmuhli yaghlee filbutoon
- Kaghalyil hameem
- Khuzoohu fa’tiloohu ilaa sawaaa’il Jaheem
- Summa subboo fawqa ra’sihee min ‘azaabil hameem
- Zuq innaka antal ‘azeezul kareem
- Inna haazaa maa kuntum bihee tamtaroon
- Innal muttaqeena fee maqaamin ameen
- Fee jannaatinw wa ‘uyoon
- Yalbasoona min sundusinw wa istabraqim mutaqaabileen
- Kazaalika wa zawwajnaahum bihoorin ‘een
- Yad’oona feehaa bikulli faakihatin aamineen
- Laa yazooqoona feehal mawtaa illal mawtatal oolaa wa waqaahum ‘azaabal jaheem
- Fadlam mir rabbik; zaalika huwal fawzul ‘azeem
- Fa innamaa yassarnaahu bilisaanika la’allahum yatazakkaroon
- Fartaqib innahum murta qiboon
Surah Ad-Dukhan Tafseer in English
The Surah takes its name from the word dukhan which occurs in verse 10.
Period of Revelation
Its period of revelation also could not be determined from any authentic tradition, but the internal evidence of the subject matter shows that this Surah too was sent down in the same period in which Surah Zukhruf and a few other earlier Surahs had been revealed. However, this Surah was sent down somewhat later. Its historical background is this: When the disbelievers of Makkah became more and more antagonistic in their attitude and conduct, the Holy Prophet prayed: O God, help me with a famine like the famine of Joseph. He thought that when the people would be afflicted with a calamity, they would remember God, their hearts would soften and they would accept the admonition. Allah granted his prayer, and the whole land was overtaken by such a terrible famine that the people were sorely distressed. At last, some of the Quraish chiefs among whom Hadrat Abdullah bin Masud has particularly mentioned the name of Abu Sufyan came to the Holy Prophet and requested him to pray to Allah to deliver his people from the calamity. On this occasion Allah sent down this Surah.
Subject Matter and Topics
The introduction to the address revealed on this occasion for the admonition and warning of the people of Makkah contained some important points, which are as follows:
“You, O People of Makkah, are wrong in thinking that the Quran is being composed by Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace). This Book by itself bears the clear testimony that it is not the composition of a man but of Allah, Lord of the worlds.”
“You are making a wrong estimate of the worth of this Book. You think it is a calamity that has descended on you, whereas the Hour when Allah, out of sheer mercy, decided to send His Messenger and His Book to you was highly blessed.”
“You are foolishly involved in the misunderstanding that you will fight this Messenger and this Book and will win, whereas the fact is that the Messenger has been raised and the Book sent down in that particular Hour when Allah decides the destinies, and Allah’s decisions are not so weak that they may be changed to a person’s liking, nor are they based on ignorance and folly that there may be the likelihood of a mistake or error or weakness in them. They are rather the firm and unalterable decisions of the Ruler of the Universe, Who is All Hearing, All Knowing and All Wise. Therefore, they cannot be treated lightly.
“You yourselves acknowledge that Allah alone is the Master and Lord of the earth and heavens and of everything in the Universe and also admit that life and death are only in His power, yet you insist on making others your deities, for which the only argument you offer is that that had been the practice since the time of your forefathers, whereas if a person has the conviction that Allah alone is the Master, Sustainer and Giver of life and death, he can never entertain the doubt that there can be other gods also beside Him, who can be worthy of worship. If your forefathers had committed this folly, there is no reason why you also should continue committing it blindly. As a matter of fact, their Lord too was only One God, Who is your Lord, and they also should have worshiped only Him, Whom you should worship.”
“The only demand of Allah’s Providence and Mercifulness is not this that He should feed you, but also this that He should arrange guidance for you. For this very guidance He has sent His Messenger and His Book.”
After this introduction, the question of the famine that was raging in Makkah has been discussed. As already mentioned, this famine had occurred on the Holy Prophet’s prayer, and he had prayed for it so that when the calamity befell it would break the stubbornness of the disbelievers and then they would listen to the rebuke. It looked as if this expectation was being fulfilled to some extent, for some of the most stubborn enemies of the Truth, on account of the severities of the famine, had cried out: “O Lord, avert this torment from us and we will believe.” At this, on the one hand, the Holy Prophet has been foretold :”These people will not learn any lesson from such calamities. When they have turned away from the Messenger, whose life, character, works and speech clearly show that he is Allah’s true Messenger, how will a mere famine help remove their disbelief?” On the other, the unbelievers have been addressed, so as to say : “You lie when you say that you will believe as soon as the torment is removed from you. We shall just remove it to see how sincere you are in your promise. There is a graver disaster about to fall upon you. You need a much more crushing blow :minor misfortunes cannot set you right.”
In this very connection, a reference has been made a little below to Pharaoh and his people, implying that those people also had met with precisely the same trial as the chiefs of the disbelieving Quraish are now afflicted. To them also a similar noble and honorable Messenger had come; they also had seen those express pointers and signs which clearly showed that he had been appointed by Allah; they also had gone on witnessing one sign after the other but they did not give up their stubbornness, till at last they made up their mind to put an end to the Messenger’s life, and they met their doom, which has since become an object lesson for the people for ever.
After this the theme of the Hereafter has been taken up, which the disbelievers of Makkah vehemently denied. They said: “We have never seen anyone rising back to life after death. Raise our forefathers back to life if you are true in your claim about the life hereafter.” In response to this, two arguments for the Hereafter have been presented briefly (1) That the denial of this creed has always proved destructive for the morals; and (2) that the universe is not a plaything of a thoughtless deity, but it is a wise system and no work of wisdom is ever vain or useless. Then the disbelievers demand to bring their forefathers back to life has been answered, thus : “This cannot be done every day to meet the demand of the individuals, but Allah has appointed a time when He will resurrect all mankind simultaneously and will subject them to accountability in His Court. If one has to protect oneself there, one should think about it here. For no one will be able to save himself there by his own power, nor by the power of any one else.”
In connection with this Court of Allah, mention has been made of the fate of those who will be declared as culprits and of the rewards of those who will be declared as successful. The discourse has been concluded with this warning: “This Quran has been revealed in simple language in your own tongue so that you may understand it; yet if you do not understand it and insist on seeing your evil end, you may wait; Our Prophet too is waiting. Whatever is to happen, will happen at its own appointed time.”